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University Grants Commission Sponsored            

Minor Research Project

Spatial Pattern Of Health and Hygiene and Related Issues In Suburban Mumbai



Mrs. Ayesha Imran Gundagi

Assistant Professor in Environmental Studies

St. Andrew’s College,

St. Dominic Road, Bandra (W)

Mumbai – 400050



FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: slum area studied

  • The Slums studied are more vulnerable to contagious, infectious water borne diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and dominate the morbidity pattern here.
  • Some policies need to be planned in the slums for garbage collection. The point of collection centers should increase in number.
  • Regular fogging is required in these congested slums especially the area next to the main drainage creek of Malwani.
  • Also the creek clogged with polythene needs to be cleaned by the BMC (Bombay Municipal Corporation) especially prior to monsoons and then and there after on a regular basis.
  • There exists a paramount need to inculcate Environmental consciousness at the community level.
  • Slum dwellers having access to OSD Open Sewerage System should be sensitized about the consequences of flooding and therefore their participation by collaborating with the local body is a must for a healthy environment.


FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: hospitals in the wards H/W and P/N

  • The ward H/W houses less population compared to P/N ,As can be seen from the above data the hospital to dispensary ratio is very less .t
  • There exists 1 Dispensary for 65,990 people in H/W whereas 1 dispensary for 94,361 people in P/N Ward.


Need for Civic hospital for Curative diseases in Malwani P/N,Other than Maternity in Zone1.


  • The number is too high and there is an urgent need for more dispensary.

Although two wards have been studied in detail  by the investigator ,the situation is the

  • Despite several growth oriented policies adopted by the government, there exists a widening economic, social and regional disparity, in the health sector. More than 75% of the health infrastructure and health resources are concentrated in the core area of the city in South Mumbai.(as seen from the catchment area MAP 4 A)
  • To improve the prevailing scenario the problem of lack of infrastructure a socio cultural model needs to be adopted, where human beings are at the centre of model irrespective of class, caste, creed, and community.
  • It’s the need of the hour that policy maker frame policies where each and every one is entitled to get proper treatments, medication.
  • Regional Planners should consider peripheral areas of Mumbai, (Northern suburbs highly populous the location of a health infrastructures.
  • Affordability, availability and quality are the challenges when it comes to providing health care in slum areas. In slums of northern Mumbai, apart from the above mentioned the other challenge by the slum-dwellers is accessibility.
  • As most of the tertiary hospital and state hospitals are concentrated in greater Mumbai, the geographical distance is created for a health facility seeker and the provider. People not only from Eastern and Western suburb but also from Mumbai Metropolitan Region also travel to KEM, Nair, J.J hospital, Kasturba Gandhi.

Final Observations (O) and Recommendations (R)

1  (O)- The Central and State Government  has confined themselves to Disease control and Population control programmes .

R-   The need of the hour is not just preventive care but inclusion of curative care by the state government to save the poor from vicious cycle of poverty enhancing quality of life of people who cannot afford healthcare


Inadequate Government Infrastructure,Low expenditure on health care and

Further marginalization of the  Economically low income group.


Observations from Exit Interview.

8 out of 10 were not satisfied with some or the other aspect of the civic run and BMC hospitals.As mentioned by the respondents

  1. 50% Respondents complained about the hardships and procedures involved in government hospitals OPD SECTION.
  2. The forms are charged a minimum amount for a month,a queue to obtain the form followed by a long queue for the general practioners and doctors(Figure 4.4 a).
  3. Rudely Behaved Ward boys,unhygienic condition of the hospital. (Figure 4.4 b).
  4. 90% of the respondents complained about the inadequate drugs supplied by the government hospitals,The drugs prescribed by the doctors should be made available to the patients,but 1 out four drugs was provided and the rest were told to buy from outside

The availability of drugs is inadequate in all the Primary Health Centres and hospitals belonging to the government


“Right to good  health is the basic  fundamental right of the citizens of any country and should not be denied by any nations”.

The Developed Countries of the world have insured a minimum healthcare through some health plan insured for their population.

In the First world (Capitalist) countries like U.S.A,Canada,Japan ,Australia,NewZealand ,health care is one of the important factors of a welfare state evolved  under the concept of Social Security.In the Second world (Socialist ) countries the state provides health care as a basic right of citizens

But sorry to say, there is no assurance of universal health care or any welfare model ensuring health for all its people in developing countries India.

Practically the government needs to intervene in the present model and assist it with micro  health insurances for curative care to address the issue of affordability by the poorest of the poor

Also more spaces to be taken into account in suburban Mumbai for  the development of health care infrastructure especially in pockets filled with poor and underprivileged class.

‘India might not need Nuclear Reactors at this very minute in a Welfare State Model, but we definitely need Social Infrastructure to improve the quality of life  of its people’

Mrs.Ayesha Imran Gundagi.